What catalyst is used in fuel cells?

What catalyst is used in fuel cells?

platinum catalyst
On the anode side, the platinum catalyst enables hydrogen molecules to be split into protons and electrons. On the cathode side, the platinum catalyst enables oxygen reduction by reacting with the protons generated by the anode, producing water.

What is the most common catalyst for fuel cells?

Platinum, platinum alloys with transition metals, platinum-ruthenium alloy, palladium and other similar catalytic materials have been the most commonly utilized catalyst materials for various electrochemical devices such as fuel cell, electrolyzers, electrochemical pumps (also known as electrochemical compressors).

Do fuel cells need catalysts?

The fuel cells typically use a platinum catalyst to speed up the reaction at the oxygen electrode, but platinum is expensive. The start-up and operation of the fuel cell also introduces side reactions that damage the efficacy of the catalyst.

Why is platinum a good catalyst for fuel cells?

A good catalyst should be able to split up oxygen molecules into atoms but should not bind too strongly with the free atoms; the shorter distance between platinum atoms in the new material makes it a more effective catalyst because it binds even more weakly with the oxygen atoms.

What is the lifespan of a hydrogen fuel cell?

The fuel cell stacks are designed to last the lifetime of the vehicle, about 150,000–200,000 miles. At the end of its lifespan, the fuel cell will be disassembled and the materials recycled, similar to what happens with vehicle components today.

Are fuel cells cheap?

Current hydrogen vehicles use fuel cells to convert the chemical energy to power. Fuel cells are very costly because they are complex and require expensive materials such as platinum.

What does a catalyst do in a fuel cell?

In a fuel cell, the catalyst facilitates the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth. The catalyst is rough and porous so the maximum surface area of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or oxygen.

How much electricity does a hydrogen fuel cell produce?

According to the US Department of Energy, one fuel cell produces around 0.5 to one volt of electricity. This is not enough to power even the smallest electrical devices.

Why are fuel cells so expensive?

What is a disadvantage of fuel cells?

Disadvantages of using fuel cells in cars hydrogen is in the gas state at room temperature and pressure, so it is difficult to store in the car. fuel cells and electric motors are less durable than petrol engines and diesel engines, so they are not so long-lasting. fuel cells are very expensive.

How much platinum is in a catalytic converter?

There are between 3-7 grams of platinum group metals in a standard catalytic converter, but the amount varies based on manufacturer and model. In terms of the extent to which they are used, there are generally around 3 to 7 grams of PGMs in a standard catalytic converter.

Does hydrogen fuel cell have a future?

In the future, fuel cells could power our cars, with hydrogen replacing the petroleum fuel that is used in most vehicles today. Unlike a typical battery, which eventually goes dead, a fuel cell continues to produce energy as long as fuel and oxidant are supplied.

How are catalysts used in a PEM fuel cell?

Low temperature fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, have required the use of highly active catalysts to promote both the fuel oxidation at the anode and oxygen reduction at the cathode.

Are there any non precious metal catalysts for PEMFC?

Of the newer catalysts, iron-based nanostructures on nitrogen-functionalised mesoporous carbons are beginning to emerge as possible contenders for future commercial PEMFC systems.

How are non precious metals used as catalysts?

These non-precious metals are often employed in catalysts in the form of transitional metal complexes such as chalcogenides, transition metal oxides or nitrides and macrocycles (porphyrins or phthalocyanines).

What kind of metal is used for anode and cathode in PEMFC?

The use of the noble metal platinum as the preferred catalyst for the anode and cathode is one of the impediments to widespread PEMFC commercialisation on account of its high cost and scarcity [2].