What causes increased dermal mucin?

What causes increased dermal mucin?

Increased dermal mucin is a feature of lupus erythematosus (LE); however, its amount and distribution have not been well characterized. The differentiation of LE from other forms of dermatitis can be challenging when other features of LE are subtle or equivocal.

What causes cutaneous mucinosis?

Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a rheumatic disease most often associated with secondary mucinosis (cutaneous mucinosis can occur in up to 1.5% of LE cases). Mucin deposits have also been reported in other DCTD such as Sjögren syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis and dermatomyositis.

What is dermal mucinosis?

Dermal mucinoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal deposition of dermal mucin, an amorphous substance composed of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. We describe two cases of dermal mucinosis in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency.

Is mucinosis an autoimmune disease?

Papulonodular mucinosis (PNM) is an uncommon but distinctive cutaneous manifestation of autoimmune connective tissue disease mainly associated with lupus erythematosus. Mucin deposition in the dermis is a common histologic finding.

What is the difference between scleroderma and Scleredema?

Scleredema is differentiated from scleroderma by the presence of mucin and the lack of destruction of skin adnexa.

What is dermal mucin deposition?

All involve accumulation in the skin of abnormal amounts of mucin. This is a jelly-like complex carbohydrate substance, called hyaluronic acid, that occurs normally as part of the connective tissue in the dermis or mid-layer of the skin. The abnormal deposits that occur in mucinoses can be localised or widespread.

How is cutaneous mucinosis treated?

Plaquelike cutaneous mucinosis treatments are mostly based on case reports. Antimalarial drugs and topical or systemic corticosteroids are the most frequently used.

What is focal cutaneous mucinosis?

Cutaneous focal mucinosis (CFM) is a localized form of cutaneous dermal mucinosis clinically presenting as an asymptomatic skin-colored papule or nodule that occurs anywhere on the body or in the oral cavity. The etiopathogenesis of CFM is unclear, but it is thought to represent a reactive and not a neoplastic lesion.

What’s connective tissue disease?

A connective tissue disease is any disease that affects the parts of the body that connect the structures of the body together. Connective tissues are made up of two proteins: collagen and elastin. Collagen is a protein found in the tendons, ligaments, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone and blood vessels.

What does scleroderma look like?

Nearly everyone who has scleroderma experiences a hardening and tightening of patches of skin. These patches may be shaped like ovals or straight lines, or cover wide areas of the trunk and limbs. The number, location and size of the patches vary by type of scleroderma.

What is the life expectancy of a person with scleroderma?

People who have localized scleroderma may live an uninterrupted life with only minor symptom experiences and management. On the other hand, those diagnosed with an advanced and systemic version of the disease have a prognosis of anywhere from three to 15 years.

What is mucin stain?

Mucin stains. Acid (simple, or non-sulfated) – Are the typical mucins of epithelial cells containing sialic acid. They stain with PAS, Alcin blue at pH 2.5, colloidal iron, and metachromatic dyes. They resist hyaluronidase digestion.

What kind of lesion is focal Cutaneous mucinosis?

Histologically, focal cutaneous mucinosis is a nodular lesion within the superficial dermis, giving rise to a dome-shaped appearance. The characteristic finding is the presence of abundant myxoid stromal change, with stellate to spindle cells in varying numbers and occasional cleftlike spaces (Figs. 15.68 and 15.69 ).

Why does mucinosis have a myxomatous appearance?

Because this tissue is relatively acellular and contains abundant ground substance, it has a myxomatous (mucinous) appearance microscopically. It is believed to represent the oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis or cutaneous myxoid cyst.

How is mucin biopsy used in dermatopathology?

Clinically, it presents with semitranslucent pretibial papules and/or nodules and sometimes vesicles. The biopsy shows a hyperkeratotic and atrophic epidermis with oedema of the superficial dermis and mucin deposition. This is accompanied by angioplasia in the upper part of dermis and fibrosis in the reticular dermis.

Can a cutaneous stasis change cause mucin deposition?

However, this is not a physiological condition, and it is usually associated with cutaneous stasis changes. In stasis changes, the papillary dermis shows prominent fibrosis and expansion with mucin deposition, which extends to the dermoepidermal junction with no Grenz zone.