What is quadrilateral space syndrome?
Quadrilateral space (QS) syndrome (QSS) is a relatively rare condition in which the axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex artery are compressed within the QS. Fibrous bands are most commonly implicated as the cause, with true space-occupying lesions being less common.
Where is quadrilateral foramen?
The quadrangular space (or quadrilateral space) is one of three spaces located in the posterior compartment of the arm, along with the lateral triangular space and medial triangular space.
Which nerve passes through the quadrilateral foramen?
The quadrangular space transmits the axillary nerve, and the posterior humeral circumflex artery.
What lies in the quadrangular space?
Three muscles directly comprise the quadrangular space; the teres minor, teres major, and long head of the triceps brachii. The teres minor originates on the lateral border of the scapula, inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and functions with glenohumeral joint external rotation.
How do you fix a quadrilateral space syndrome?
Conservative treatment is often first trialed, including physical exercise modification, physical therapy, and therapeutic massage. In patients unrelieved by conservative measures, surgical decompression of the quadrilateral space may be indicated.
How many diagonals are there in a quadrilateral?
The two diagonals of a convex quadrilateral are the line segments that connect opposite vertices.
What is quadrangular Intermuscular space?
The quadrangular space is an intermuscular space through which the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral vessels pass through backwards to encircle the surgical neck of the humerus. It is bounded above by subscapularis and teres minor and below by teres major.
What is trilateral foramen?
The triangular space (also known as the medial triangular space, upper triangular space, medial axillary space or foramen omotricipitale) is one of the three spaces found at the axillary space.
What happens if axillary nerve is damaged?
Axillary nerve dysfunction is nerve damage that can lead to a loss of movement or sensation in the shoulder. Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches.
Why is axillary nerve called circumflex nerve?
The axillary nerve or the circumflex nerve is a nerve of the human body, that originates from the brachial plexus (upper trunk, posterior division, posterior cord) at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carries nerve fibers from C5 and C6.
How do you calculate quadrangular space?
The quadrilateral, or quadrangular space, is located over the posterior scapular and subdeltoid regions. The boundaries include the teres minor superiorly, the long head of the triceps medially, the teres major inferiorly, and the surgical neck of the humerus laterally (Fig.
How do you remember quadrangular space?
Triangular space, Quadrangular Space- Scapula [Mnemonic]
- Triangular Space – TS (aka– Medial or Upper Triangular space, Foramen omotricipitale),
- Quadrangular Space – QS (aka– Quadrilateral space of Velpeau, Foramen humerotricipitale),
- Triangular Interval – TI (aka– Lateral or Lower Triangular space, Triceps hiatus).