What is the role of neuraminidase in influenza?
Influenza virus membranes contain two glycoproteins: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. This promotes the release of progeny viruses and the spread of the virus from the host cell to uninfected surrounding cells. Neuraminidase also cleaves sialic acid residues from viral proteins, preventing aggregation of viruses.
What does the influenza virus target?
INFLUENZA PATHOLOGY Non-fatal influenza viral infections predominantly involve the upper respiratory tract and trachea, but fatal cases of influenza usually show evidence of pneumonia. This review concentrates on the pathology of the lower respiratory tract.
Why are hemagglutinin and neuraminidase particularly important to transmission for influenza A?
The two surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, mediate a range of host interactions from receptor binding to viral release. As mentioned previously, the hemagglutinin binds to carbohydrates on the cell surface terminating in sialic acid.
How does the influenza virus replicate?
The influenza virus has a negative sense RNA genome. In order to replicate, this means that the virus must first produce positive sense mRNA in order to produce necessary enzymes. Once the enzymes are translated, replication can take place.
Which one is not useful in the treatment of virus?
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses because bacteria and viruses have different mechanisms and machinery to survive and replicate. The antibiotic has no “target” to attack in a virus. However, antiviral medications and vaccines are specific for viruses.
What diseases does influenza cause?
Complications of flu can include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes.
Does influenza cause lung damage?
The flu virus, or influenza, is often considered a respiratory illness. That means it infects your throat, your nose, and sinuses, and can also infect your lungs. Some people are more vulnerable to complications that can affect their lungs, making the flu virus very dangerous.
How does the concept of genetic drift apply to influenza A virus?
One way flu viruses change is called “antigenic drift.” Drift consists of small changes (or mutations) in the genes of influenza viruses that can lead to changes in the surface proteins of the virus, HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase).