## Why is random variation problematic in a time series?

Random Walks and the Nonindependence of Observations Because of this nonindependence, the true patterns underlying time-series data can be extremely difficult to see by visual inspection.

What are the four types of variation in time series analysis?

These four components are:

• Secular trend, which describe the movement along the term;
• Seasonal variations, which represent seasonal changes;
• Cyclical fluctuations, which correspond to periodical but not seasonal variations;
• Irregular variations, which are other nonrandom sources of variations of series.

### What is the seasonal variation of a time series?

Seasonal variation is variation in a time series within one year that is repeated more or less regularly. Seasonal variation may be caused by the temperature, rainfall, public holidays, cycles of seasons or holidays.

What is cyclical variation in time series?

Cyclical Variations: Cyclical variations are recurrent upward or downward movements in a time series but the period of cycle is greater than a year. A business cycle showing these oscillatory movements has to pass through four phases-prosperity, recession, depression and recovery.

## What are the problems of time series?

Many time series problems have contiguous observations, such as one observation each hour, day, month or year. A time series where the observations are not uniform over time may be described as discontiguous. The lack of uniformity of the observations may be caused by missing or corrupt values.

What are the types of time series data?

Time series data can be classified into two types:

• Measurements gathered at regular time intervals (metrics)
• Measurements gathered at irregular time intervals (events)

### What are the two models of time series?

Two of the most common models in time series are the Autoregressive (AR) models and the Moving Average (MA) models.

What are the four types of variation?

Examples of types of variation include direct, inverse, joint, and combined variation.

## What are some examples of seasonal variation?

A situation in which a company has better sales in certain times of the year than in other times. For example, a swimwear company likely has better sales in the summer, and toy companies likely perform better in the period preceding Christmas.

What are the types of seasonal variation?

There are many types of seasonality; for example:

• Time of Day.
• Daily.
• Weekly.
• Monthly.
• Yearly.

### What are the causes of variation in time series?

CAUSES OF VARIATIONS IN TIME SERIES DATA • Social customs, festivals etc. Seasons • The four phase of business : prosperity, decline, depression, recovery • Natural calamities: earthquake, epidemic, flood, drought etc. Political movements/changes, war etc.

How do you find cyclical variation?

3.3. 1 Quantitative sales forecasting

1. Components:
2. A) Calculation of time-series analysis:
3. 3 point moving averages.
4. Variation = difference between actual sales and 3pma.
5. Cyclical variation = add up the variation for each cycle point e.g. all cycle point 1’s then divide by the number of cycle points e.g. 3.

## What causes irregular variations in a time series?

{ Irregular variation Irregular or random variations in a time series are caused by unpredictable in uences, which are not regular and also do not repeat in a particular pattern. These variations are caused by incidences such as war, strike, earthquake, ood, revolution, etc.

What are the different types of variation in time series data?

Different Sources of Variation are: Seasonal effect (Seasonal Variation or Seasonal Fluctuations) Many of the time series data exhibits a seasonal variation which is the annual period, such as sales and temperature readings.

### How is the cyclical component of time series data?

In weekly or monthly data, the cyclical component may describe any regular variation (fluctuations) in time series data. The cyclical variation is periodic in nature and repeats itself like a business cycle, which has four phases (i) Peak (ii) Recession (iii) Trough/Depression (iv) Expansion. It is a longer-term change.

What are the traditional methods of time series analysis?

Traditional methods of time series analysis are concerned with decomposing of a series into a trend, a seasonal variation, and other irregular fluctuations. Although this approach is not always the best but still useful (Kendall and Stuart, 1996).