What should flue gas Analyser readings be?
Flue gas analysers usually display a CO/CO2 ratio. This shows the ratio of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the exit flue (chimney) of the appliance. Generally when this level is below 0.004 the boiler is considered to be running efficiently. For oil or coal fired appliances the CO should not be above 200ppm.
How do you analyze flue gases?
Flue Gas Analysis is performed by inserting a probe into the flue of the furnace, boiler, etc., between the last heat exchanger and draft diverter or any source of make-up air that could enter the flue that did not pass through the combustion process. This is known as ‘in-situ’ testing.
What should be read at a wedding?
Popular Wedding Readings
- Extract from Captain Corelli’s Mandolin – Louis de Bernieres.
- A Lovely Love Story – Edward Monkton.
- The Art of Marriage – Wilfred A Peterson.
- Apache Marriage Blessing – Anon.
- The House at Pooh Corner – A.A. Milne.
- My First Love Story – Rumi.
- Extract from Les Misérables – Victor Hugo.
What is the ideal O2 content of flue gas?
In residential furnaces, optimum fuel-air ratio results in the oxygen level being reduced from 21% (fresh air) to between 8.5-10% oxygen by volume after combustion. To test the oxygen level, a tool called a combustion analyzer is used to measures the amount of oxygen remaining in the flue exhaust gas.
What causes high CO in flue gas?
Disconnected flues can allow high CO in exhaust gases to spill 100% into the building. Many news reports list a leak in the flue pipe as the number one cause of CO poisonings. While this is obvious, it’s easy to forget that any equipment with a drafthood.
What is the maximum permissible CO reading?
In the USA the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have set a maximum level of CO in the flue at 400 PPM. In the home a concentration of no more than 9 PPM is recommended.
Which of the following is calculated by flue gas analysis?
3. Which of the following is calculated by flue gas analysis? Explanation: The only practical way for determining the amount of air used in furnace is to analyse the flue gas for the constituents CO2, CO an O2.
Why do we analyse oxygen content in flue gas?
By measuring the amount of excess oxygen and/or carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gases, the plant can be tuned to operate at the best heat rate and lowest nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Operation at best efficiency also inherently produces the least amount of carbon dioxide (CO2).
How do you introduce a wedding reader?
One idea is to simply have your wedding officiant introduce the next reader (“We’ll now have a reading by ___________.”) Another option is to have your ceremony musician(s) insert a brief musical interlude (no more than 30 sec. – 1 min.) while a second reader approaches the altar.
What is a soulmate wedding reading?
Richard Bach on Soulmates “A soulmate is someone who has locks that fit our keys, and keys to fit our locks. When we feel safe enough to open the locks, our truest selves step out and we can be completely and honestly who we are; we can be loved for who we are and not for who we’re pretending to be.
How do you calculate CO2 gas in flue?
CO2 from biomass = 4.33 × 0.224 = 0.97 m3. Total amount of dry flue gas per 1 kg wood = 4.872 m3. Therefore % CO2 = 0.97/4.872 = 19.91 assuming stoichiometric combustion (0 % O2). For 20 % excess air = 16.6 % CO2 For 40 % excess air = 14.2 % CO2 For 50 % excess air = 13.27.
What is the maximum CO allowed in the flue gases?
The current ANSI Z21. 47 standard (1998) requires that an air-free flue gas sample of CO not exceed a maximum of 400 ppm (0.04 percent) when a furnace vent is either partially or completely blocked.
What should I look for in a flue gas analyser?
Flue gas analysers usually display a CO/CO2 ratio. This shows the ratio of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the exit flue (chimney) of the appliance. Generally when this level is below 0.004 the boiler is considered to be running efficiently.
How is flue gas used in an FGA?
An FGA samples the flue gas of a working appliance and measures the critical gases produced in the combustion process to determine if it is operating efficiently, but also if it is operating safely. Some of the products of combustion are hazardous to humans, namely carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2
What should the reading be on a gas analyser?
That means that if it is between the two you should investigate. It is also accepted that after debris has been stirred up through maintenance temporarily the reading may be 0.008 and this is acceptable. This practise corresponds to about 500ppm CO inside the flue gases (not by adjusted free air test).
When to use infrared spectroscopy to measure flue gases?
CO is usually the first combustible gas component to appear when the combustion fuel/air ratio begins to become too rich. Desired CO levels in combustion flue gases are typically less than 200 ppm, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is well suited to measuring at these low levels.